Avoid being accused of plagiarism, which include copying another’s work, paraphrasing or summarising without acknowledgement, colluding with other people and presenting either identical or very similar essays
So what does referencing include?
A. In-text citations, that may take three forms:
- Paraphrasing, where you keep consitently the author’s >B that is original. A reference list in the final end of your essay, which includes details such as for instance:
- Date of publication
- Publisher and put of publication (for books)
- Journal name, volume and issue (for journals)
- Internet address or doi (digital object >
Referencing is integral to academic essay writing and shouldn’t be looked at as an ‘add-on’. You ensure 100% accuracy when you are referencing, always use a referencing guide to help.
Normally, when writing an essay at university you’re going to be likely to use only academic sources. The following learning guide on source credibility will help you to see whether an external source is academic or perhaps not.
The APA is used by the chocolate essay model of referencing, which is simple to distinguish from the Harvard Author-Date System, while the format is different:
|…cocoa and take a look at the site here chocolate products at levels where they are biologically active (Ariefdjohan & Savaiano 2005)||…cocoa and chocolate products at levels where they have been biologically active (Ariefdjohan & Savaiano, 2005)|
|No comma between names and Comma between names and year year|
You want the reader to focus on what is said rather than who is saying it when you are writing an essay and including external sources, more often than not. The information comes before the author in that case. For instance:
Such citations are known as information-centred citations.
As soon as the focus is much more on who is saying it then the citation is written such as this:
Such citations are known as citations that are author-centred.
|attempt to achieve a balance between both forms of in text-references in your essay writing.|
When you look at the APA style of referencing, the reference list has certain conventions that you have to also follow. Check out examples through the chocolate essay:
|Don’t make referencing something you do just as an editing or proofreading activity. Include your in-text citations and reference list in the first draft.|
An website that is excellent assistance with your APA referencing is the APA Interactive tool at Massey University.
Leave yourself the time to have a look at your essay more often than once. For a 1000 word essay you’ll need at least three days to redraft your essay.
|Always save each draft as a file that is separate then you can certainly observe how your essay develops and improves.|
Here you will find the kinds of questions you need to ask yourself:
You may glance at other checklists such as this one on editing your personal work.
Let’s see how the composer of the chocolate essay redrafted their original introduction:
Now compare the above aided by the final draft:
Since Spanish explorers cut back chocolate from the “” new world “”, chocolate consumption is now a phenomenon that is worldwide. To start with, chocolate, a derivative of this cacao bean, was consumed as a drink, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form. However, chocolate’s inherent popularity does not equate to it possessing healthy properties, as suggested because of the title. The realities of chocolate are more down to earth; a true number of those realities will undoubtedly be addressed in this essay. Chocolate has chemical properties that may influence mood and there is evidence that is possible some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health. Yet, such positive attributes are counterbalanced somewhat by the argument that, in certain instances, chocolate may very well be a drug as opposed to a food. Moreover, there is the possibility for some correlation between over-consumption of obesity and chocolate. Thus, it should be argued that despite chocolate’s effect that is positive some cases on mood additionally the cardiovascular system it has in addition been connected to addiction and obesity.
Invest some time and stay careful when redrafting—it will be worth every penny!
How do you write in an academic way?
Your lecturers would want to hear your ‘voice’ because they read your essay.
Imagine your essay as a type or kind of story. You are the storyteller that is principal the inner voice of the writer, leading your reader right through to your conclusion.
Through the story, you can find different voices that appear every once in awhile. These are the external voices (citations) that add substance to your story, providing detail and support for what you might be saying or even giving an perspective that is alternative. The external voices may be divided into two categories in your essay: the direct external voice of an author (through a direct quote) additionally the indirect external voice of an author (through a paraphrase).
The reader has to know at all times whose voice they are hearing. Can it be your voice that is internal or external voice of other authors?
You may wonder tips on how to include your personal voice and still sound academic while you are writing about a subject area in that you’ve little (or no) knowledge. Together with your voice does not always mean that you ought to say ‘I think’ or ‘in my opinion’.
Check out types of the critical/analytical language which you can use as your own internal voice when you present other people’s ideas:
|Phrase||How your voice is included|
|it is often argued (Smith & Jones, 2010) that…||Pointing out what has been said by an external source|
|As Smith and Jones (2010) note…||Showing your agreement utilizing the external source|
|However, Smith and Jones (2010) are not able to address…||Showing about it it has been suggested that… (Smith & Jones, 2010; Brown & Culbertson, 2005; Lloyd & Giggs, 2004)||Showing that you recognise a number of authors have reached a similar conclusion, and you might/might not agree with it|
|One advantage of the work of Smith and Jones (2010)…||Showing that you are positively engaging with an external source that you recognise the limitations of the source|
|Seemingly, Smith and Jones (2010) have…||Showing you have tentative support for the external source|
|On the other hand, Smith and Jones (2010) argue that…||Showing that there is a contrast with a previous argument you have included|
|Smith and Jones (2010) assert that…||Showing that the position of the external source is strong but you are likely to have doubts|
Let’s look at one of the paragraphs from the chocolate essay to see how the writing is an interplay associated with voice that is internal of writer while the external voices of other authors.
The voice that is internal of writer is colour-coded in yellow; the indirect external voices of other authors (in other words. paraphrases) are coded in grey; while the direct external voices of other authors (in other words. quotations) are coded in blue.
This is a balanced paragraph. The writer sets the scene at the start of the topic sentence and also links together each of the sentences, employing their own voice to guide into content which is given by the external voices.
Consider the paragraph that is same, because of the number of the writer’s voice substantially reduced:
Here the writer just isn’t ‘in charge’ of the paragraph, plus it reads a little like a list. That is one thing your lecturers do not want to see.
|When you are drafting your paragraphs, use a system that is colour-coding the one used here. It helps you ensure your academic voice is clear!|
When you get more confident in making use of external sources, you will gradually expand the language of your critical internal voice. The Phrasebank website at Manchester University provides examples of a few more expressions to use when assessing external sources.
Editing centers around the big picture elements such as overall structure, appropriate paragraphing and if the question has been answered.
Proofreading has a micro-focus on the main points of one’s essay, such as for instance formatting, grammar and punctuation.
Everybody has their very own style that is personal of and proofreading. You ought to focus on the forms of errors you commonly make by looking at the marker’s comments on the previous work.
Some individuals proofread alone; some get other folks involved. Having others involved is a idea that is really good.